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FORCE's eXamining the Relevance of Articles for You (XRAY) program looks behind the headlines of cancer news to help you understand what the research means for you. XRAY is a reliable source of hereditary cancer research-related news and information.
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211 through 220 of 232

Relevance: Medium

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Strength of Science: Medium-High

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Research Timeline: Post Approval

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Study : What are the genetics underlying 12 different cancer types?

Most relevant for: People diagnosed with cancer

As gene sequencing has become more affordable, researchers and health care providers are now looking for mutations in many genes beyond BRCA1, BRCA2 and others that are associated with known hereditary cancer syndromes. By sequencing thousands of genes rather than just one or two, researchers can better understand which inherited mutations affect cancer risk. In this study, researchers sequenced thousands of genes in patients with one of 12 cancers, including breast, and catalogued which gene mutations are most commonly found in each cancer. (03/01/16)

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What are the genetics underlying 12 different cancer types?

Relevance: Medium-High

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Strength of Science: Medium-High

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Research Timeline: Post Approval

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Study : Smoking before or after a breast cancer diagnosis associated with poorer breast cancer survival

Most relevant for: People who smoke cigarettes

Cigarette smoking is an important public health issue that causes more than 480,000 deaths annually. Smoking increases the risk of many diseases, from heart disease to stroke. This research indicates that smoking before and or after a diagnosis of breast cancer affects survival, and also shows that it is never too late to quit smoking. (02/23/16)

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Smoking before or after a breast cancer diagnosis associated with poorer breast cancer survival

Relevance: Medium-High

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Strength of Science: High

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Research Timeline: Post Approval

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Study : How do ultrasound and mammography compare in breast cancer screening?

Most relevant for: Young women at high risk for breast cancer with limited access to mammography and MRI is not easily accessible

Mammography has been shown to reduce breast cancer deaths; however, women in developing countries don’t have easy access to mammography. Ultrasound screening, on the other hand, is portable and less expensive, and could be an alternative to mammography. This study compared mammography to ultrasound in women with dense breasts and found the two techniques have similar cancer detection rates, although the false positive rate is higher with ultrasound. (02/16/16)

 

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How do ultrasound and mammography compare in breast cancer screening?

Relevance: Medium-High

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Strength of Science: Medium-High

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Research Timeline: Human Research

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Study : Are mutations in BRIP1, BARD1, PALB2, and NBN associated with an increased risk for ovarian cancer?

Most relevant for: People with an inherited mutation in BRIP1, BARD1, PALB2, NBN

Many women who have genetic testing for an inherited mutation find that they do not carry a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 despite their personal and family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer. Panel tests look for mutations in other genes associated with increased cancer risk. However, the cancer risk for people with mutations in some of these other genes is not yet known. This study looks at whether mutations in four genes, BRIP1, BARD1, PALB2, and NBN, are associated with an increased risk for ovarian cancer. The researchers found that BRIP1 mutation carriers have about a 6% risk of developing ovarian cancer by age 80. (02/09/16)

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Are mutations in BRIP1, BARD1, PALB2, and NBN associated with an increased risk for ovarian cancer?

Relevance: Medium

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Strength of Science: Medium

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Research Timeline: Animal Studies

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Study : Sugar promotes tumor growth and metastasis in mouse model breast cancer

Most relevant for: People diagnosed with breast cancer

Previous human studies found associations between high sugar intake and breast cancer risk. This study looked at the direct effect of sugar on breast cancer growth and metastasis in mice. While researchers observed that sugar increased tumor growth and metastasis, more work needs to be done to see if this finding is relevant in humans. It is important to remember, the overall health benefits of limiting sugar intake remain undisputed. (02/02/16)

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 Sugar promotes tumor growth and metastasis in mouse model breast cancer

Relevance: Medium

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Strength of Science: Medium

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Research Timeline: Human Research

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Most relevant for: Breast cancer patients who have an inherited mutation and breast cancer patients who developed leukemia after treatment for breast cancer.

The population of breast cancer survivors in the United States is increasing. One rare but dangerous long-term effect of breast cancer treatment is an increased risk of leukemia, a type of bone marrow cancer. A recent study uncovered a potential genetic basis for this condition. (01/26/2015)

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Potential genetic basis for breast cancer survivors who develop therapy-related leukemia

Relevance: Medium-High

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Strength of Science: Medium-High

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Research Timeline: Post Approval

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Study : Does lumpectomy or mastectomy provide better survival for women with early stage breast cancer?

Most relevant for: Women with early stage breast cancer

Previous research has hinted that women who have breast-conserving surgeries have the same, if not better, overall survival as women who have mastectomies. Researchers in this study wanted to see if that was true; they found that women who chose breast-conserving surgeries did have a higher overall survival. However, this study, presented at the 2015 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, had limitations that make it difficult to interpret the results or to extend them to all women with breast cancer. (01/19/2016)

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Does lumpectomy or mastectomy provide better survival for women with early stage breast cancer?

Relevance: Medium

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Strength of Science: Medium

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Research Timeline: Lab Research

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Study : Do parabens in personal care products increase breast cancer risk?

Most relevant for: Women who use personal care products that contain parabens.

Parabens are chemicals that can mimic the hormone estrogen in the body. As estrogen has been shown to increase breast cancer risk, some people have asked if parabens found in some cosmetics and shampoos will also increase breast cancer risk. Many studies have shown that parabens in the quantities found in personal care products are safe. A recent study of human breast cancer cells suggests that in certain conditions, parabens could help some breast cancer cells grow. It is important to remember that this is early research; this single laboratory-based study does not conclusively prove that parabens are dangerous. More work, including human studies, needs to be done to understand if parabens increase cancer risk. (01/16/2016)

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Do parabens in personal care products increase breast cancer risk?

Relevance: Low

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Strength of Science: Medium

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Research Timeline: Animal Studies

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Study : Study uses mice and brains from deceased Alzheimer’s patients to assess BRCA1 involvement

Most relevant for: This research is not relevant to people

Researchers noted reduced levels of BRCA1 protein in the brains of mice and deceased Alzheimer's patients. While this study is interesting early work on the biology of Alzheimer's disease, the focus was primarily Alzheimer's disease, rather than the effect of BRCA1 mutations on Alzheimer's. Therefore, this study's observation may be something that is seen in Alzheimer's patients, but does not necessarily cause the disease. No studies suggest that BRCA1 mutation carriers are at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. (12/22/2015)

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Study uses mice and brains from deceased Alzheimer’s patients to assess BRCA1 involvement

Relevance: Medium

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Strength of Science: Medium-High

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Research Timeline: Human Research

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Study : How many children with cancer have mutations in genes that increase cancer risk?

Most relevant for: Survivors of childhood cancer and people with a family history of relatives diagnosed with childhood cancers

Many genes are associated with increased cancer risk in adults, but it is unclear how common these mutations are in children with cancer. This study found that about 9% of children with cancer carry mutations in a gene that is known to increase cancer risk. Over half of the mutations were in the TP53 gene, which is associated with increased cancer risk at a young age and increased risk of breast cancer in adults. (12/15/2015)

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How many children with cancer have mutations in genes that increase cancer risk?