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Types of Reconstruction
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Types of Breast Reconstruction

Breasts can be reconstructed using implants, living tissue or a combination of the two. Most reconstruction involves two or more operations over several months. The initial surgery forms the breast mounds (breasts without nipples). A shorter  surgery later refines the shape and size of the new breasts and (if needed) creates nipples. Tattooing adds color to the nipples, simulates the areolas and completes the reconstructive process. 

Reconstruction with breast implants

Most breast reconstruction involves implants, which are filled with soft, thick silicone gel (saline implants are used less often). Implants may be placed under or over the pectoral chest muscle. Implants are not lifetime devices, and eventually must be replaced.

Implant procedures include:

  • Expander-to-implant reconstruction: A temporary expandable implant is placed into a pocket under the chest muscle and is then gradually inflated over a few weeks in a plastic surgeon’s office. Expansion stretches the chest skin and muscle until the pocket is large enough to fit the desired implant. A shorter surgery then replaces the expanders with implants that best fit the chest anatomy and desired size. 
  • Direct-to-implant reconstruction (also known as "one-step): Nipple-sparing mastectomy and reconstruction can be completed in a single operation. This is known as "direct-to-implant" reconstruction. A full-sized implant is secured into place with an FDA-approved acellular dermal matrix (a type of tissue graft made from animal, human or synthetic tissue), so no expansion is needed. With this reconstruction the implants may be placed under or over the muscle, depending on patient and surgeon preferences. Not all surgeons perform this type of reconstruction.  

Breast implants (and especially a type known as textured silicone implants) have been linked to a very rare cancer known as Breast Implant Associated Anaplastic Large Cell  or BIA-ALCL. Although the cancer is rare, the issued a recall of Allergan BIOCELL textured implants and expanders (see full list of devices here). This means that surgeons will no longer be able to use these implants for breast reconstruction or augmentation in the future. The  does not recommend removal of textured implants when there are no symptoms of BIA-ALCL or other implant-related complications because the risk of developing this disease is low.

Screening for breast implant rupture

The recommends periodic imaging (e.g., , ) of silicone gel-filled breast implants to screen for implant rupture. In fact, they require implants be labeled with the these recommendations. Even if there are no symptoms, patients should have an  or at 5-6 years after their initial implant surgery and then every 2-3 years thereafter. The also recommends that any person who has symptoms at any time or uncertain results for breast implant rupture should undergo a breast .

Visit our section on Preparation and Recovery for additional risks associated with breast implants and other types of reconstruction. 

Reconstruction with living tissue

Breasts can be reconstructed using excess fat, skin, and/or muscle removed from the tummy, hips, back, buttocks or thighs. This is known as "autologous breast reconstruction." 

Older  techniques, including and Latissimus Dorsi, remove muscle from the donor site, which can lead to pain or muscle weakness. Newer techniques, known as "perforator flaps" include , PAP, GAP, TUG and others. These methods produce similar cosmetic results using only fat and skin and sparing the muscle. These muscle-sparing methods require a specially trained microsurgeon who connects blood vessels in the to blood vessels in the chest. The overall timeframe for completing reconstruction is shorter than breast reconstruction with tissue expansion, but it is more invasive and requires longer surgery and recovery times. Unlike breast implants, tissue flaps last a lifetime without needing to be replaced.

Find Experts
Find Experts

The following resources can help you find a plastic surgeon who specializes in breast reconstruction:

Finding a plastic surgeon

Other ways to find experts

  • Register for the FORCE Message Boards and post on the Find a Specialist board to connect with other people who share your situation.
  • The website for The Complete Guide to Breast Reconstruction  provides information on Choosing the Right Surgeon.

Get Support
Get Support

FORCE offers many peer support programs for people with inherited mutations. 

Paying For Care
Paying For Care

The Women’s Health and Cancer Rights Act (WHCRA) is a federal law, which requires most employer and group health plans that pay for mastectomy to also pay for:

  • Breast prostheses.
  • Breast reconstruction.
  • Surgery to the other breast to achieve a symmetrical appearance.
  • Treatment for complications from mastectomy or reconstruction.

To learn more about the WHCRA, contact the Department of Labor, Pensions, and Welfare Benefits Administration, 800-998-7542 or visit their website

FORCE has sample insurance appeal letters to help people denied coverage of services needed to manage cancer risk or treat cancer. 

Additional resources include:

Last updated May 28, 2022