Hereditary Cancer and Genetic Testing

Risk management for people with inherited  mutations

The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) provides risk management guidelines for men and women with mutations. We recommend that you speak with a genetics expert who can look at your personal and family history of cancer and can help you determine the best risk management plan. You can learn more about risk management options in our section on Screening and Risk Reduction by Cancer Type. In addition to the screening outlined below, NCCN recommends that men and women receive education on the signs and symptoms of cancers linked to a mutation.

People with a  mutation may also qualify for clinical trials looking for more effective screening or prevention for cancer.


Breast cancer risk management in women

Screening:

  • Learn to be aware of changes in breasts beginning at age 18.
  • Clinical breast exam every 6-12 months beginning at age 25.
  • Annual breast with contrast (or if is unavailable) beginning at age 25 and continuing until age 75.
  • Annual at age 30 until age 75 (consider 3D , if available).
  • Screening after age 75 should be considered on an individual basis.

Risk reduction:

  • Women should have a discussion with their doctors about of the advantages and disadvantages of risk-reducing mastectomy.
    • Research has shown that risk-reducing mastectomy can effectively lower the risk for breast cancer in high risk women by about 90%.
    • Despite this, mastectomy has not been shown to improve overall survival for high risk women. Even after mastectomies, some breast tissue-and therefore some breast cancer risk remains. 
  • Women should have a conversation with their doctor about the possible benefits of tamoxifen or other estrogen-blocking medications to reduce breast cancer risk in women with mutations.


Breast cancer risk management in men

  • Breast self-exam training and education beginning at age 35.
  • Clinical breast exam every 12 months beginning at age 35.
  • Consider annual in men with gynecomastia beginning at age 50 or 10 years younger then the earliest case of male breast cancer in the family (whichever comes first). 


Ovarian and cancer risk management

Risk reduction:

  • Risk-reducing removal of ovaries and , also known as salpingo-oophorectomy is recommended between age 40 and 45 and upon completion of childbearing.
  • Removal of the only () is being studied as an option for lowering risk in high-risk women who are not ready to remove their ovaries. Studies on the benefit of have not been completed, and at this time, it is not known if lowers the risk for ovarian cancer in high risk women. Consider enrolling in a research study looking at this procedure to lower cancer risk.
  • Oral contraceptives (birth control pills) have been shown to lower the risk for ovarian cancer in women with  mutations. Research on the affect of oral contraceptives on breast cancer risk has been mixed. Women should have a  discussion with their doctors about the benefits and risks of oral contraceptives for lowering ovarian cancer risk. 

Screening:

  • Routine ovarian cancer screening using transvaginal and a blood test has not shown benefit. However, some doctors still recommend screening, starting at age 30-35.
  • Women should be aware of the symptoms of ovarian cancer and report abnormalities to their doctors. 


Guidelines for pancreatic cancer

  • For  mutation carriers with a first- or second- degree relative with pancreatic cancer consider screening beginning at age 50 or 10 years younger than the age of diagnosis of the relative. 
  • For people who choose pancreatic cancer screening, NCCN recommends that the screening be performed in a facility with experience in screening high-risk patients for pancreatic cancer. Before undergoing screening, people should have a conversation with their doctor about the potential benefits, risks, costs and limitations of screening.
  • Consider annual screening with contrast-enhanced MRI/MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) and/or EUS (endoscopic ).


Guidelines for cancer

  • Begin  cancer screening at age 40 with an annual digital rectal exam and Specific Antigen () test. 


Melanoma screening

NCCN does not include guidelines for melanoma screening for people with  mutations. However, some experts recommend general melanoma risk management such as a yearly full-body skin exam, a yearly eye exam and avoiding too much sun exposure.

find-support find-support

FORCE offers many peer support programs for people with inherited mutations. 

updated: 03/12/2022

paying-for-service paying-for-service

Health plan coverage of screening and prevention varies, and deductibles, coinsurance and copays often apply. If you need preventive services and your insurance company denies your claim, your health care provider can help you write an appeal letter, or you can use one of our sample appeal letters. Visit our section on Insurance and Paying for Care: Screening and Prevention for more information. 

updated: 01/23/2022

clinical-trials clinical-trials

The following are studies looking at level of risk or risk-management for people with inherited or mutations. Check study listings or contact the study team to see if you are eligible. 

Multiple cancers

cancer

Ovarian cancer

Pancreatic cancer

Additional risk-management clinical trials for people with inherited mutations may be found here.

updated: 02/23/2022

Last updated March 13, 2022