Cancer risk associated with inherited BRCA2 mutations
If you have tested positive for a BRCA2 mutation, we recommend that you consult with a genetics expert who can assess your personal and family history of cancer, and help you determine the best risk management plan.
Research on lifetime cancer risk for people with BRCA2 mutations has varied. The following risks are estimates based on review of different large studies. The average age of a cancer diagnosis is younger in people with a BRCA2 mutation than people who do not have a mutation.
Risks in women
- Breast cancer: The lifetime risk for a woman with a BRCA2 mutation is about 60 percent, compared with 12.5 percent for a woman of average risk.
- Ovarian cancer: The lifetime risk for a women with a BRCA2 mutation is 15 - 30 percent, compared with 1.3 percent for a woman of average risk.
- Second breast cancer in women who have already been diagnosed with breast cancer: The lifetime risk is about 26 percent.
Risks in men
- Prostate cancer: The lifetime risk for a man with a BRCA2 mutation is about 30-60 percent, compared with 12 percent for a man of average risk. Prostate cancers in men with inherited BRCA2 mutations may be more aggressive than in men without inherited mutations.
- Breast cancer: The lifetime risk for a man with a BRCA2 mutation is about 7 percent. Breast cancers in men with inherited BRCA2 mutations tend to occur at a younger age than in men without inherited mutations.
Risks in both men and women
- Pancreatic cancer: The lifetime risk for a person with a BRCA2 mutation is about 5-10 percent, compared to 1 percent for a person of average risk.
- Research on how mutations in the BRCA2 gene affect cancer risk is ongoing. Some research suggests that BRCA2 mutations may increase risk for melanoma. However, because these studies are not conclusive, genetics experts often look at a person’s family history of cancer to help people with BRCA2 mutations understand their risk for additional cancers.
The following studies are looking at cancer risks in people with a BRCA2 mutation.
- NCT00579488: Clinical Significance of Germline BRCA Mutations. The goal of this study is to help us learn more about the roles of genes and cancers that run in families.
- Identification and Analysis of Families With Genetic Susceptibility To Cancer Registry. The research laboratory at the Abramson Cancer Center is studying genetic sources of cancer risk. A number of research projects are performed in collaboration with this registry.