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Glossary on

tests and cancer treatment

Many types of "biomarkers"⁠—abnormal proteins, genetic material (genes, chromosomes, and RNA), cellular material and other products⁠—are found in cancer cells, surrounding tissues or the blood. Doctors use  tests to help detect cancer, select the best treatment, predict how fast the cancer will grow and spread and monitor response to therapy. 

tests can be confusing. There are many different types of biomarkers and different tests to measure them. Experts do not always use the same names for the same tests, which adds to the confusion. And some terms apply to more than one type of test. Requesting a copy of your medical records will make it easier to understand which tests have been performed on your cancer and your test results.  It may be helpful to review your records with your doctor and ask these questions about  tests:

The following information may help you talk with your doctor about biomarkers and testing.

Purpose of the test

tests may aid decision-making in different ways:

  • Measuring risk for recurrence: Some tests predict how fast a cancer is growing and the risk for recurrence. Examples include OncotypeDX, Mammaprint and Endopredict for breast cancer and OncotypeDX and Prolaris for cancer. 
  • Monitoring response to treatment, progression or recurrence: These tests often measure changes in biomarkers over time to learn if the cancer is responding to treatment. Examples include CA125 testing to monitor ovarian cancer and testing to monitor cancer.
  • Aiding in treatment selection: Some cancer treatments work best in people with certain biomarkers. In these cases, testing can help identify people who are most likely to respond to a particular treatment. 
  • Detecting cancer:  “Liquid biopsies⁠” look for cancer cells or cancer cell in the blood. These tests are also being studied to see if they can be used for early detection of cancer.  

Source of sample

  • Some tests may be run on stored tumor tissue that was collected and saved at the time of your diagnosis, even if your biopsy was done a while ago. If you have enough tumor tissue stored, using this "archival tissue" may spare you from a new biopsy. 
  • Some tests require fresh tissue, which means you may need a new biopsy. This is because some tumor biomarkers change over time as cancer cells grow, spread or become resistant to treatments. 
  • Some cancer cells may release biomarkers into the blood, urine or other fluids. This provides a more convenient way to find cancer or to monitor response to treatment without the need for a tissue biopsy. Blood tests that look for abnormal cancer cell are sometimes referred to as circulating tumor tests,  or liquid biopsies. 

Biomarkers for treatment selection

Some targeted therapies and immunotherapies work best in cancers that have specific biomarkers.  tests may be used to select the best to treat a particular cancer. About 100 targeted therapies have approval to treat different types of cancers. You can learn more about testing for treatment selection on our Cancer Treatment by Cancer Type and our Common Biomarkers sections.

Certain genes are important for repairing damage. These are sometimes referred to as " damage repair" (DDR) genes. Some therapies work best in cancers that have faulty DDR genes. You can read more about tests and treatments for these tumors in our Damage Repair section. 

Paying For Care
Paying For Care

Paying for testing

Insurance companies are required to cover the costs for cancer treatment. Health plans may vary on the amount of out-of-pocket costs and coverage for specific doctors, facilities, tests or treatments. Your doctor's office and treating hospital should disclose how much your treatment may cost you and work with you on a plan to cover the cost of your care.

Medicare will cover the cost for genetic testing and testing for people who meet certain criteria. Medicare coverage varies based on where you live. Visit this site to find and contact your regional Medicare provider for more information about coverage. The Medicaid website has a link to state Medicaid programs, which list specific eligibility for each state.

If you need information about finding an insurance plan, watch our video: Choosing Wisely: How to Pick Insurance Plans.Visit our Health Insurance Appeals page for additional information on insurance appeals. 

Some laboratories have assistance programs that help cover the cost for tumor testing: 

Organizations that offer co-pay assistance:

Other resources:

  • The American Cancer Society provides information and resources on covering the cost of cancer care. Public assistance, such as Medicaid may be available if you are ineligible for other programs. 
  • Triage Cancer offers tools and resources to help individuals cope with the financial aspects of a cancer diagnosis.
Last updated July 01, 2020