DNA damage and gene mutations
Cancers are caused by damage to the DNA in your cells. These changes are called “gene mutations.” Gene mutations can build up in cells in your body over time. Cells with too many mutations may stop working normally, grow out of control and become cancerous. It can take many years for cells to build enough damage to become cancer.
- Gene mutations that build up in cells are called "acquired" or "somatic" mutations.
- Somatic mutations are caused by “wear and tear” damage on genes over time.
- Aging, exposure to hormones, environmental toxins, and certain viruses can cause mutations.