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Risk Management & Treatment

Stages of cancer

Treatment for  cancer depends on the and grade of the cancer. Standard treatment may include a combination of surgery, radiation, and/or hormonal therapies. People with advanced or recurrent cancers may also benefit from chemotherapy, or . Clinical trials may be available for any of cancer.


Grades and stages of cancer

Measuring the grade and of  cancer helps doctors decide how to treat it. 

The grade of a cancer helps doctors predict how quickly the  cancer is likely to grow and spread. Doctors use a scale called the Gleason score to measure and report the grade of cancer.  The Gleason score is based on how abnormal the cells appear in the two largest areas of the tumor. The pathologist assigns a score of 1-5 for each area and adds them together for the Gleason score. Although Gleason scores can range from 2-10, most cancers will be scored as 6 or higher. The higher the score, the more abnormal and aggressive the cells appear. 

  • A score of 6 is low grade.
  • A score of 7 is intermediate grade.
  • A score of 8 to 10 is high grade.

An updated grading system is now in use. This is call Grade Group and corresponds to Gleason score as follows:

  • Grade Group 1: Gleason score <=6
  • Grade Group 2: Gleason score = 7 (3+4)
  • Grade Group 3: Gleason score = 7 (4+3)
  • Grade Group 4: Gleason score = 8
  • Grade Group 5: Gleason score = 9-10

The  refers to whether the cancer has spread beyond the , and if it has, the location in the body where it has spread. Doctors use the following information to prostate cancer:

  • size of the tumor
  • whether the cancer has spread to nearby  
  • the presence or absence of spread beyond the and  (
  • levels at the time of diagnosis
  • Gleason score

Using this information, cancer is grouped into four stages, with 1 being the least advanced and 4 being the most advanced.

  • 1 cancer is contained to the , has a Gleason score of 6 or below and a  level of less than 10.
  • 2 cancer is more advanced but has not spread beyond the .
  • 3 cancer extends beyond the but has not spread to .
  • 4 ( prostate cancer) has spread to another part of the body outside of the . Common areas of spread include the bladder, rectum, or bones.


Additional tests for 

After grading and , additional tests or imaging may be done to check for cancer spread, though these are not required for all men with newly diagnosed cancer.

Additional tests are run if:

  • levels are high
  • The Gleason score is high
  • The cancer is large
  • The cancer has spread to or beyond

The tests may include:

  • Computed tomography (CT) scans of the abdomen and pelvis
  • Bone scans
  • Magnetic resonance imaging () of your pelvis
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scans.
  • Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND)

Additional tests can be performed on tumor samples to help guide treatment. For some patients, tumor testing can help guide the choice of  or 

Last updated January 23, 2022

Get Support
Get Support

If you have cancer, you can find peer support through the following resources:

  • Us Too is an international nonprofit organization for men with cancer and their loved ones. 
  • ZERO - The End to Cancer is a nonprofit organization that provides information and support resources for men with cancer. 

Open Clinical Trials
Open Clinical Trials

The following are studies looking at new methods for , monitoring and finding recurrence in people with cancer.  

A number of other clinical trials for monitoring patients with cancer can be found here.

updated: 12/04/2021