Menopause symptoms and side effects
Everyone experiences menopause differently. Some of the more common symptoms and side effects of menopause include:
- hot flashes
- vaginal symptoms
- decreased libido or other sexual side effects
- sleep disturbance
- memory or mood changes
- weight gain
- heart disease
- bone weakening
- urinary incontinence
Some of these effects may improve over time with medication or other medical interventions. It is important to note that treatments may have their own risks and side effects. For some people, hormone therapy may be an option for addressing medical or quality-of-life issues that are not resolved in any other way. For people who are unable, or choose not to take hormone replacement, other options may be available to help ease the effects of menopause.
Hot flashes are the most common symptom of menopause. Hot flashes feel like a mild to extreme heat throughout the body, and may be accompanied by sweating, flushing, and a rapid heartbeat. Hot flashes may begin soon after menopause and last for months or even years.
Hormone replacement is the most effective treatment for hot flashes. Certain antidepressants, called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), may relieve hot flashes and other menopausal side effects. Brisdelle is an SSRI with Food and Drug Administration () approval for treating hot flashes.
Supplements do not effectively treat hot flashes. Some supplements may even be harmful. Products such as handheld fans and "chillows" that reduce body temperature have been helpful for some women who experience hot flashes. Others have also reported that exercise, hypnosis, yoga, or acupuncture relieves their hot flashes.
Menopause can also cause the walls of the vagina to become thin and dry, a medical condition known as genitourinary syndrome of menopause, or GSM. GSM symptoms include vaginal dryness, shrinking of tissues, and itching and burning, which can make intercourse painful. GSM can cause bladder and urinary tract infections as well as incontinence. Experts may use one or a combination of several approaches to treat GSM.
- vaginal creams
- systemic hormones
- vaginal hormones
- vaginal treatment with laser or radio frequency
Normally, doctors recommend lubricants and vaginal creams as the first treatment for people who have medical reasons to avoid hormones. Vaginal lubricants (e.g., K-Y, Astroglide, and others) can help make sex more comfortable while vaginal moisturizers (e.g., Liquibeads, Replens, Hyalo GYN) are designed to be used on a regular basis (not related to sexual activity). Both lubricants and moisturizers are widely available and do not require a prescription.
Systemic hormone replacement therapy (e.g., tablets or skin patches) can also improve vaginal dryness. Some doctors prescribe low-dose local vaginal hormonal treatments. Research suggests that vaginal may be safe for breast cancer survivors who cannot take systemic hormones.
Ospemifene (Osphena) is a type of drug known as a Selective Receptor Modulator (SERM). It has been approved to treat painful intercourse due to menopause.
Researchers are studying how well Carbon Dioxide (CO2) laser treatment such as MonaLisa Touch and radiofrequency treatment such as ThermiVa may help. These vaginal treatments do not have have approval, and most insurance companies do not cover their costs.
“Libido” refers to a person's level of sexual desire. Many people experience decreased libido as a side effect of menopause. Hormones can improve libido after surgical menopause. Some doctors recommend the addition of testosterone replacement for women who have loss of libido with menopause that isn't alleviated by and progesterone alone.
Studies looking at the effects of the antidepressant bupropion (Wellbutrin) on libido suggest that the drug may improve sexual arousal, overall sexual satisfaction, and satisfaction with intensity of orgasm. Larger studies are needed to validate these findings.
Some people report disruption in sleep patterns associated with menopause. Sleep disturbances may also cause fatigue and problems thinking. Sleep experts can help develop plans for treating sleep disorders, which may include behavioral therapy, strategies for improving sleep habits and medication.
Menopause can affect memory. People in menopause often report memory loss or difficulty focusing on tasks. A number of studies have shown that having before menopause can lead to an increased risk of memory decline and dementia.
Hormone replacement may help protect against memory loss from young-onset menopause. More research is needed to better understand the effects of and progesterone replacement on memory and the best timing for hormone replacement. Some research has shown a benefit from yoga, exercise, mindfulness, meditation and training. Experts also recommend a healthy diet, avoiding alcohol, and getting adequate sleep. Research has shown some benefit from the medication Modafinil, a drug used to treat sleep disorders.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in American women. Risk increases after menopause, especially young-onset, surgical menopause. In addition to surgical menopause, risk factors for heart disease include:
- sedentary lifestyle
- waistline of more than 35 inches
- high blood pressure or cholesterol
- certain cancer treatments
- family history of heart disease and genetic factors
Research suggests that replacement therapy may protect against heart disease caused by early menopause. More research is needed to confirm these findings. Maintaining an ideal body weight, exercising, and avoiding smoking can also help protect from heart disease.
For most people, heart disease is treated with medications. When heart disease is caught early, it is more treatable. It's important for post-menopausal people to have an annual physical exam and to report to their doctor any shortness of breath, abnormal heart rhythm, chest pains or other symptoms.
Experts use the terms “normal,” “osteopenia,” or “” to describe bone health and weakening. Osteopenia refers to low bone mass or density. is a more serious loss of bone density, which weakens the bones. Some degree of bone thinning occurs as a natural part of the aging process. Loss of through natural or surgical menopause can lead to weakening of the bones, increasing the risk for broken bones.
A bone density test can tell whether a person’s bones are weakened or normal. Doctors often recommend a baseline bone density test around the time of menopause or surgery, and followup bone density tests yearly, or every two years after that.
Hormonal and nonhormonal medications can lower the risk for broken bones caused by loss of bone density. Proper nutrition, including adequate calcium intake is important for bone health. Weightbearing or resistance exercises may strengthen bones in postmenopausal women.
Urinary incontinence refers to abnormalities of the bladder. The two most common types of urinary incontinence are leakage of urine and a persistent urge to urinate. Both are common side effects of menopause. There are hormonal and non-hormonal treatments for incontinence. Special exercises (called Kegel exercises) that strengthen your pelvic muscles can help. When medication and exercises don't help, surgery may also be used to treat incontinence.
The following resources can help you locate an expert near you or via telehealth.
Finding menopause experts
- The North American Menopause Society has a tool to help you find a qualified menopause expert in your area.
Some symptoms of menopause may be managed by other experts. People experiencing menopause symptoms may benefit from a consultation with the following experts.
Sexual health experts
- The Sexual Medicine Society of North America (SMSNA) has a search tool to find experts in your area who sexual health care services.
- The American Association of Sexuality Educators, Counselors and Therapists (AASECT) maintains a tool to help people find a sexual health expert near them.
- The National Certification Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine has a searchable directory of licensed acupuncturists.
- The American Academy of Sleep Medicine maintains the public-facing website SleepEducation.org that includes a section on finding a sleep center by location.
Bone density experts
- The Bone Health and Foundation has a searchable database for finding experts.
Other ways to find experts
- Register for the FORCE Message Boards and post on the Find a Specialist board to connect with other people who share your situation.
- The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated comprehensive cancer centers have specialists to manage the symptoms and side effects from cancer prevention or treatment.
FORCE offers many peer support programs for people with inherited mutations.
- Our Message Boards allow people to connect with others who share their situation. Once registered, you can post on the Diagnosed With Cancer board to connect with other people who have been diagnosed.
- Our Peer Navigation Program will match you with a volunteer who shares your mutation and situation.
- Our moderated, private Facebook group allows you to connect with other community members 24/7.
- Check out our virtual and in-person support meeting calendar.
- Join one of our Zoom community group meetings.
The following are studies on menopause and menopause management for survivors and previvors:
- NCT03815929: , Therapy and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Young Women. Researchers are trying to assess the best dose of for decreasing heart disease in women whose ovaries have been removed before age 46.
- NCT05042362: A Study to Learn More About How Well Elinzanetant Works and How Safe it is for the Treatment of Hot Flashes Caused by Hormonal Changes Over 26 Weeks in Women Who Have Been Through the Menopause (OASIS-1). The study treatment elinzanetant was developed to treat symptoms caused by hormonal changes. Researchers will study how well 26 weeks of elinzanetant works compared to a in women who have been through menopause and have hot flashes.
- NCT04251052: A Study to Compare Two Surgical Procedures in Women with Mutations to Assess Reduced Risk of Ovarian Cancer (SOROCk). Women ages 35–50 with a mutation and at risk for ovarian cancer are eligible. SOROCk will determine if removal of the alone can reduce the risk of ovarian cancer as much as removing the ovaries and .
- NCT04439370: Autonomic Regulation of Blood Pressure in Premature and Early Menopausal Women. This study will look at the effects of early menopause on blood pressure.
- NCT03572153: A Mind-Body Intervention for Hot Flash Management. The main goal of this study is to test whether self-administered hypnosis can be used to reduce hot flashes more than self-administered white noise hypnosis over 6 weeks of home practice.
- NCT05086705: EMBr Wave for the Reduction of Hot Flashes in Women With a History of Breast Cancer. This trial studies how well a personal heating and cooling device worn on the wrist (called EMBr Wave) may help reduce hot flash severity in women with a history of breast cancer.
- NCT04821141: Phase IIB Trial of Bazedoxifene Plus Conjugated Estrogens. Women at increased risk for breast cancer who experience hot flashes will receive bazedoxifene plus conjugated estrogens (similar to the drug Duavee) for 6 months or a control (no drug). Researchers will measure breast density with and needle biopsy that looks at biomarkers.