Get notified of page updates

Standard Therapy

Read about cancer treatment options listed by gene mutation, type of cancer and type of treatment.

Stay up to date on research and information

Sign Up for FORCE Newsletters
Glossary on

Treatment for pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer is hard to diagnose early, since the signs and symptoms are not obvious. Because of this, the majority of pancreatic cancers are only found after the disease has reached an advanced .

Treatment may include:


Doctors recommend treatment based on:

Every treatment has potential risks and side effects. Before any new treatment or surgery, make sure your healthcare team tells you what to expect.


Surgery is used when results of tests suggest that it is possible to remove all the cancer. Only about 20% of patients with pancreatic cancer are able to have surgery because most pancreatic cancers are first diagnosed when the disease has already spread.

  • Whipple procedure (pancreaticoduodenectomy) is the most common operation to remove a cancer in the head of the pancreas.
  • Distal pancreatectomy is a surgery that removes only the tail of the pancreas or the tail and a portion of the body of the pancreas.
  • Total pancreatectomy surgery removes the entire pancreas, as well as the gallbladder, part of the stomach and small intestine, and the spleen.
  • Palliative surgery may be used  to relieve symptoms or to prevent certain complications like a blocked bile duct or intestine in instances where the cancer is too widespread to be removed completely.


Chemotherapy uses drugs to help kill cancer cells. These drugs can be injected into a vein or taken orally. 

The most common chemotherapy drugs for pancreatic cancer are:

  • Gemcitabine (Gemzar)
  • 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)
  • Oxaliplatin (Eloxatin)
  • Albumin-bound paclitaxel (Abraxane)
  • Capecitabine (Xeloda)
  • Cisplatin
  • Irinotecan (Camptosar)

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams, such as X-rays to destroy cancer cells. You may receive radiation treatments before or after pancreatic cancer surgery, often in combination with chemotherapy such as capecitabine or gemcitabine. In specialized medical centers, radiation therapy may be delivered during surgery (intraoperative radiation).

Traditional radiation therapy uses X-rays to treat cancer, but a newer form of radiation using protons is available at some medical centers. Patients who have proton radiation therapy may have fewer side effects compared to patients who have standard radiation therapy.

Timing of treatment

  • treatment is given before surgery to shrink the tumor and help the surgeon remove as much of the cancer as possible. 
  • is given after surgery to prevent the cancer from spreading or coming back.
  • with a  is given to some people after they complete chemotherapy treatment to keep the cancer from coming back or growing. 
  • If the cancer recurs, additional chemotherapy,  or  may be given, depending on response to initial treatment and tumor  testing.

Treatment side effects

Your healthcare team should explain what to expect from all treatments, including:

  • all of the possible risks and side effects of each treatment.
  • which side effects may be serious and how to tell. 
  • when and who you should call if you experience a side effect.
  • what can be done to treat or alleviate each side effect. 

Make sure you let your healthcare team know if you experience any side effects of your treatment. For more information about possible treatment side effects, see our section on Cancer Treatment by Treatment Type

Get Support
Get Support

The following organizations offer peer support services for people with or at high risk for pancreatic cancer:

Last updated January 06, 2024