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Because men with BRCA2 mutations are more likely to develop early-onset, aggressive prostate cancer, national guidelines recommend they begin annual Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing at age 45 and have more frequent follow-up screenings. For this population, even small increases in PSA test results may lead to further testing, including biopsy.
Men with mutations in BRCA1 should also consider PSA testing beginning at age 45. Their risk may not be significantly higher than men in the general population but current study results are unclear.
Because genetic testing for other gene mutations such as ATM and CHEK2 is relatively new, fewer men with these mutations have been studied. Because the exact risk for prostate cancer related to these gene mutations is unknown, men with mutations in these genes should talk with their doctors about beginning PSA testing at age 45.