XRAYS - Making Sense of Cancer Headlines

FORCE’s eXamining the Relevance of Articles for Young Survivors (XRAYS) program is a reliable resource for breast cancer research-related news and information. XRAYS reviews new breast cancer research, provides plain-language summaries, and rates how the media covered the topic. XRAYS is funded by the CDC.

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Racial And Ethnic Differences

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PERSONAL STORY: A young woman's story of genetic testing and risk-reducing mastectomy

Alejandra Campoverdi comes from a family with three generations of breast cancer. As a former White House aide and active educator in the Latina community, she has openly shared her story of genetic testing, her BRCA2 mutation and her plans for risk-reducing mastectomy at age 39. (6/6/19)

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STUDY: Gaps in information about breast cancer risk and prevention impact African American women

A study showed that African American women with increased breast cancer risk experienced greater burdens in obtaining information at each step compared to white women. Racial differences in preventive choices correlated with differences in information and provider access. (3/14/19)

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STUDY: Prevalence of BRCA founder mutations in Bahamian women


The Bahamas has the highest known frequency of BRCA mutations among people diagnosed with breast cancer. This study reviewed whether population-based BRCA testing (testing everyone regardless of family or personal history of cancer) would be an effective approach for finding mutation carriers in the Bahamas. (3/4/19)

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STUDY: Inherited breast cancer in Nigerian women

A new study shows that among Nigerian women, one in eight cases of breast cancer is due to an inherited mutation in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2 or TP53. (12/5/18)

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ARTICLE: The importance of racial diversity in clinical trials

This article by journalists Caroline Chen and Riley Wong looks at racial disparities between participation in clinical trials and the population of people with cancer. (11/6/18)

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STUDY: Surgeon attitude impacts rate of genetic testing after a breast cancer diagnosis

A study in JAMA Surgery this year examined the factors that impact genetic testing after a breast cancer diagnosis. This study suggests that the attitudes of attending surgeons about genetic testing have the most impact on whether patients receive testing. (10/6/18)

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STUDY: Disparities in research impact breast screening guidelines

For women at average risk of breast cancer, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) currently recommends beginning annual breast cancer screening at age 50. However, because these guidelines are largely based on data from white women, they may not be sensitive to racial differences.  A new study assesses the age distribution of breast cancer cases across race/ethnicity in the U.S. (6/21/18)

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STUDY: XRAYS Follow Up: Does expanded genetic testing benefit Jewish women with breast cancer?

In this follow-up, we update a recent XRAYS on expanded genetic testing in Jewish women with breast cancer.  An expert in the field suggests a different interpretation of the original study than the authors. We examine the key differences in interpretation of the data. (6/7/18)

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ARTICLE: The right not to know when not knowing is dangerous

Healthcare providers are bound by the guiding principle of doing no harm. But how does this concept apply to their patients who have not consented to genetic testing or who do not want to know their results? In that case, is providing test results more harmful or not? Anna Clausen explores these issues in the context of breast cancer gene testing in her Global Health Now article “The Right Not to Know: When Ignorance is Bliss but Deadly.” (4/20/18)

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STUDY: FDA approves breast cancer test kits: how useful are they?

Interest in personalized genetic testing is growing. Genetic testing about health conditions typically requires a prescription from a health care provider. Until recently, the direct-to-consumer (DTC) testing market has focused on ancestry and discovery of unknown branches of family trees. A laboratory called 23andMe that provides direct-to-consumer genetic testing has been given FDA approval to report results for 3 mutations found in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The FDA statement provides details about this approval and cautions consumers about the limitations of the 23andMe test. (03/19/18)

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GUIDELINE: Alcohol and breast cancer risk in African American women

The link between alcohol intake and breast cancer is well known, but most studies have involved only White women. Recently, a large study of more than 22,000 African American (AA) women found that similar to White women, increased alcohol consumption is associated with a greater risk of breast cancer. (10/27/17)

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STUDY: Beauty and the breast: hair product use and breast cancer risk

Past studies using mostly animal models showed a link between use of hair products (dyes, straighteners and relaxers) and increased risk of certain cancers. In this study, researchers looked at data on hair product use among African-American (AA) and White women to see if certain types of hair products increased breast cancer risk, and how that risk might differ between race and breast cancer hormone status. (9/27/2017)

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STUDY: Breast cancer rates are rapidly increasing among Asian women in California

The majority of racial groups in the United States have seen declines in breast cancer rates. However, this study provides new insights into the patterns of breast cancer rates in Asian American subgroups in California. Using 26 years of data, this research found that breast cancer is rapidly increasing among this population, contrasting to a decline in rates among non-Hispanic white women in California and nationwide. (8/15/17)

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STUDY: A step in the development of a new breast cancer risk assessment tool for Hispanic women

Current tools used to calculate breast cancer risk make their estimations based on data from non-Hispanic white women and may not accurately predict breast cancer risk in women of other races and ethnicities. With further testing, a new risk assessment tool developed specifically for Hispanic women could more accurately predict breast cancer risk in women who do not have mutations in BRCA or other genes associated with hereditary breast cancer. (02/07/17)

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STUDY: Breast cancer mortality among Hispanic women in the United States varies by country of origin

"Hispanic" is a broad ethnic category that includes people from numerous countries. When discussing breast cancer statistics, Mexicans, Cubans, Puerto Ricans and people whose families originated in Central and South America are typically grouped into one Hispanic category. A new study looked at whether the country of origin affected breast cancer prevalence and mortality rates in Hispanic women in the U.S. (10/25/16)

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STUDY: Racial disparities in BRCA testing: Why?

Black women receive BRCA testing less frequently than white women. Why is that? Researchers thought the reason might be that black and white women see different health care providers. However, new research suggests that disparities in physician recommendations for testing are the cause: black women with breast cancer were less likely to receive physician recommendations for BRCA testing than white women with breast cancer. There is a need to ensure equity in physician testing recommendations for black women. (7/21/16)

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STUDY: BRCA mutations more common than expected in young black women with breast cancer

Most estimates of the percentage of breast cancer patients with mutations in BRCA are based on studies in white women. These researchers found that black women diagnosed at a young age with breast were twice as likely to have a BRCA mutation than previously reported based on studies in white women with breast cancer diagnosed in the same age categories. This study shows how important it is for all black women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer at or before age 50 to be referred for genetic counseling and testing. (9/29/15)

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STUDY: All DCIS is not the same: Young women and African American women at higher risk after DCIS diagnosis

Diagnoses of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), sometimes called stage 0 breast cancer, have increased in recent decades. Many people with DCIS wonder if they need aggressive treatment. A study looking at the survival of over 100,000 women found that breast cancer mortality after DCIS is low (3%), and identified groups of women who are at higher risk after DCIS. (9/8/15)

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