FORCE’s eXamining the Relevance of Articles for Young Survivors (XRAYS) program is a reliable resource for breast cancer research-related news and information. XRAYS reviews new breast cancer research, provides plain-language summaries, and rates how the media covered the topic. XRAYS is funded by the CDC.
Current breast cancer treatments can negatively affect cardiovascular health. Recently, the American Heart Association released its first scientific statement on cardiovascular disease and breast cancer. This statement includes a comprehensive overview of the prevalence of both diseases, shared risk factors, cardiotoxic effects of therapy and the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in breast cancer patients. (5/2/18)
The link between alcohol intake and breast cancer is well known, but most studies have involved only White women. Recently, a large study of more than 22,000 African American (AA) women found that similar to White women, increased alcohol consumption is associated with a greater risk of breast cancer. (10/27/17)
A recent New York Times article shared how “adopting protective living habits” could help keep breast cancer “at bay”. While many of these lifestyle changes and strategies like not smoking, avoiding weight gain, reducing alcohol consumption, eating a heart-healthy diet, and increasing physical activity have been shown to reduce breast cancer risk, there are other risk factors that one cannot control such as having a BRCA or other mutation that significantly increases breast cancer risk. Importantly, no one strategy has been proven to totally eliminate breast cancer risk. However many of these approaches have overall health benefits. (9/21/2017)
During teen years, breast tissue grows rapidly in young girls and is more likely to be harmed by substances that are known to cause cancer. Few studies have looked at the relationship between diet during puberty and breast cancer risk. This study looks at how a woman’s diet during their teenage years and early adulthood is associated with breast cancer development later in life. (6/30/17)
Is eating soy safe for people who have had breast cancer? This topic has been controversial among health care providers, patients, and survivors for many years because research has yielded mixed results. Some studies suggest people who have been diagnosed with breast cancer should eat more soy products, while other studies recommend they eat less or avoid it altogether. Which should it be? Adding to this research is a new study that asked breast cancer survivors about their soy consumption before and after diagnosis. (4/27/17)
Patients and health care providers are often concerned about how exercise affects lymphedema (swelling in the arm or hand) in breast cancer survivors or other women who have had lymph node biopsy at the time of mastectomy. Research on this topic has been mixed. A new study suggests that exercise after breast cancer treatment does not lead to
lymphedema or worsen existing lymphedema. However, because this study was small, more work needs to be done to understand the relationship between exercise and lymphedema in cancer survivors. (2/22/17)
Vitamin D is most known for its role in maintaining bone health. Recent research looked at its role in many other biological processes and diseases, including breast cancer. In this study, researchers found that breast cancer patients who had the highest amounts of vitamin D in their blood (slightly over the recommended levels) had better health outcomes, including overall survival, than women with lower amounts of vitamin D. This finding adds to the growing evidence for the role of vitamin D in cancer, but it does not change how breast cancer is prevented or treated. (1/10/17)
Exercise has been established to have many health benefits, but can it also help memory impairment for breast cancer survivors? New research finds that breast cancer survivors who exercised more had less fatigue and distress (anxiety, depression, stress, and/or concern about recurrence) and scored better on memory tests. (8/2/16)
A number of factors are known to increase breast cancer risk, but some newly discovered factors have not been incorporated into breast cancer risk prediction models. This study incorporates some of these risk factors, such as genetics, smoking, and drinking, to give white women in the U.S. a more individualized breast cancer risk assessment. (6/29/16)
Alcohol is known to increase breast cancer risk, but does that include light consumption? This study indicates that some breast cancer occurrences and mortality is due to light alcohol consumption. (06/21/16)
Previous research in mice suggested that long periods of fasting provide protection against factors that are associated with a poor cancer outcome. A new study associates prolonged fasting (13 hours or more) at night with a lower risk of breast cancer recurrence, but no association between fasting time at night and mortality. While these findings are interesting, more research needs to be done to confirm them. In the meantime, breast cancer survivors should discuss any concerns about nutrition with their health care providers. 05/30/16
Some researchers believe that dietary fiber may decrease breast cancer risk by lowering estrogen levels in the blood. However, many previous studies have failed to find a link between fiber consumption and lower breast cancer risk. The current study suggests that consuming high dietary fiber during adolescence and young adulthood may lower breast cancer risk, but more work needs to be done to confirm this finding. In the meantime, everyone is encouraged to eat a variety of high fiber foods for the many well-documented health benefits. (March 8, 2016)
Previous human studies found associations between high sugar intake and breast cancer risk. This study looked at the direct effect of sugar on breast cancer growth and metastasis in mice. While researchers observed that sugar increased tumor growth and metastasis, more work needs to be done to see if this finding is relevant in humans. It is important to remember, the overall health benefits of limiting sugar intake remain undisputed.
Metastasis, the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to another site in the body, is a complex process. Researchers do not understand why a few cells metastasize while other cells do not. A study performed in mouse models suggests that high doses of some antioxidants may make it easier for cancer cells to metastasize.
Many treatments that lower estrogen levels also reduce breast cancer risk. Unfortunately, these treatments are also associated with negative side effects. A recent study looked at the effect of regular aerobic exercise on the estrogen levels of women who are at high risk for breast cancer.
Weight gain in breast cancer survivors can affect survival and quality-of-life. This study found that breast cancer survivors are more likely to gain weight than women of the same age who are at high risk, but have never been diagnosed with cancer. The study looked at which groups of survivors were more likely to gain weight.