XRAYS - Making Sense of Cancer Headlines

FORCE’s eXamining the Relevance of Articles for Young Survivors (XRAYS) program is a reliable resource for breast cancer research-related news and information. XRAYS reviews new breast cancer research, provides plain-language summaries, and rates how the media covered the topic. XRAYS is funded by the CDC.

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Impact of familial breast cancer risk on young girls

This research is relevant for:

Checked Previvors

Unhecked Men with breast cancer

Unhecked Triple negative breast cancer

Unhecked ER/PR +

Unhecked Her2+ breast cancer

Checked People with a genetic mutation linked to cancer risk

Checked Breast cancer survivors

Checked Women under 45

Unhecked Women over 45

Unhecked Metastatic cancer

Unhecked Healthy people with average cancer risk

Checked Other mutations: Families with a strong family history of breast cancer or any of the genes linked to increased breast cancer risk

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XRAYS:  Making Sense of Cancer Headlines

Does growing up in a family that is at high risk for breast cancer affect young girls? Recent research found girls from families with BRCA mutations and/or a strong family history of cancer to be as well adjusted as peers of the same age. The one difference was that girls from families facing breast cancer risk had more stress related to breast cancer than their peers. While these findings are reassuring, parents know their children best, and they should ask for help if they believe their daughters are not coping well. (11/03/2015)


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Guidelines Resources and references


This study is about:

How young girls are impacted by growing up in families with a history of breast cancer and/or BRCA mutations. 

Why is this study important?  

As the use of genetic testing has become more available, people are more aware of their elevated cancer risk due to a BRCA or other gene mutation. Because parents who are mutation carriers have a 50% chance of passing their mutation and its high risk onto their children, it is important to study and understand how children in high-risk families respond, cope and perceive their own breast cancer risk. 

Study findings:  

  1. Young girls within families with a history of breast cancer or a BRCA mutation reported higher breast cancer-specific distress than young girls from families without a family history of breast cancer.
  2. A girl’s amount of distress was found to be directly affected by the amount of distress exhibited by her mother with breast cancer: as a mother’s breast cancer-specific distress increased, so did her daughter’s.
  3. Girls from families with a history of breast cancer or BRCA mutation did not have worse general psychosocial adjustment than their peers. 

What does this mean for me?

While young girls from familial breast cancer families do not have worse general psychosocial adjustments than their peers, they do experience more breast cancer-specific distress. Parents know their children best; they should openly dialogue with their daughters, and ask for help if they believe their daughters are not coping well.



Study background:

While previous studies looked at children’s response to having parents with cancer, few have studied how being from a family with a genetic or familial risk for breast cancer impacts children. Although results from studies of children with parents who have cancer suggest that these children may be at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems and general distress, the studies were often small and did not include a comparison group. It is important to understand how children are coping because research has shown that psychosocial distress can be associated with greater risk behaviors, such as alcohol and tobacco use.  In this study, Dr. Angela Bradbury and colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania and the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia looked at signs of distress in girls who were from families at high risk for breast cancer. 

Researchers of this study wanted to know:

Do young girls with a family history of breast cancer or BRCA mutation have worse psychosocial adjustment (internalizing and externalizing problems and breast cancer-specific stress), higher risk taking, and lower preventive health behaviors than young girls without a familial breast cancer risk?
What factors are associated with higher perceived risk of breast cancer?

Population(s) looked at in the study:

The study included 869 mother-daughter pairs (441 pairs were from families with a history of breast cancer, while 428 were not). Daughters ranged from ages 6 to 13.  Participants were from 5 U.S. study sites in these states: New York City, Philadelphia, Salt Lake City, the San Francisco Bay Area, and Canada (Ontario). Among the 441 mothers in the group with family history of breast cancer:

  • about 40% had a personal history of breast cancer.
  • about 14% had BRCA mutations.

The researchers assessed information that was gathered from surveying the mothers in each pair.  Girls who were age 10 and older also self-reported information, while girls who were under age 10 did not.

The criteria for participating mothers and daughters with familial breast cancer risk was defined as having more than 1 close first- or second-degree relative (parent, child, sibling, grandparent, aunt or uncle) with breast cancer or a BRCA mutation. The comparison group did not have a family history of breast cancer or a BRCA mutation. 

Study findings: 

  1. The more relatives who had breast cancer, the higher young girls perceived their risk.
  2. Higher general anxiety in daughters was associated with higher anxiety in their mothers, in addition to poor family communication.
  3. Girls from a family with familial risk were more likely to report that they had increased risk for breast cancer.
  4. Girls in both groups (those with and without familial risk for breast cancer), were unsure of their exact risk.


This study only looked at mother-daughter pairs: there was no data on daughters with a deceased mother. Nor did the study take into account the impact of fathers. The study population of BRCA families was small.


Being aware of how breast cancer impacts daughters in families with familial breast cancer risk is important. This study shows that daughters from these families are generally well adjusted, although they do have greater breast cancer-specific distress and anxiety, and perceive higher breast cancer risk.  Being aware of this can help health care providers determine interventions to address concerns of both mother and daughter.  Members of our advisory board also note that although the children in this study did not necessarily feel more distress than their peers, parents should remember that every daughter and every family is unique.  Parents should be alert for any changes in a child's typical behavior, such as sleep changes, worry, and/or a drop in school grades. It is important for parents to monitor their daughters’ behavior, open dialogue with them, and get help if they believe their daughter is not coping well.  

Published 11/03/15

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Related Information and Resources

Booklet: Talking about BRCA in your family tree

Be Empowered Webinar: Sharing risk information with children

FORCE page: Sharing risk with relatives


Bradbury AR, Patrick-Miller L, Schwartz L, et al. “Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls with a Family History of Breast Cancer.” Pediatrics. Volume 136, number 5, November 2015. 

American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Medical Genetics, "Ethical and Policy Issues in Genetic Testing and Screening of Children." Pediatrics. Volume 131, number 3, March 2013. 

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