This study is most relevant patients with advanced lymphoma cancer.
While this study did look at estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor-negative mouse mammary tumors, these are quite different from human breast cancers.
This study’s results are excellent and exciting: all of the mice that were treated had substantial tumor responses and lived longer. However, it is important to remember that many cancer therapies that work well in rodents don’t ultimately work well in humans.
A new, small trial of situ vaccination with CpG and OX40 for low-grade lymphoma is enrolling patients; it will be a starting point to understand whether this approach can be as successful in people as it was in these study mice.
Even if the human trial is successful, it will still be years before this type of tumor “vaccination” can be broadly offered to patients.